Materials that can replace missing tooth roots are called implants. It is used to support implants, crowns, bridges or prostheses. They are surgically placed in the jawbone. Implants are generally more reliable and natural than other methods used to complete missing teeth.
The general health of people with missing teeth may be affected by malnutrition. Because of the missing teeth, they cannot chew well and eat all types of food. At the same time, loss of teeth causes the closure to change, causing problems in the jaw joint called the temporomandibular joint. Persons' self-esteem is also affected as a result of disorders that may occur due to tooth loss.
The jawbone in the area of the missing teeth begins to melt in time. If the amount of melt is higher, the amount of bone in the jaw is increased with the help of bone grafts. This allows the tissue infrastructure to which the implant or prosthesis can be adapted.
Implants are made of titanium, small cylindrical and screw-like materials. The abutment, which is a metal neck, is screwed into the implant after the implant has been inserted into the jawbone. Abutment forms the foundation for crown, bridge or prosthesis.
Osseointegration has a decisive effect on the success of all implants. In this procedure, the jaw bone fuses with the implant. Implants are made of titanium because the jawbone perceives titanium as part of the body.
COMPARISON OF IMPLANT AND ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES
Implants have many advantages. First of all, they are much more comfortable compared to their alternatives. They are similar to your natural teeth because they are placed in your jawbone. They help you trust yourself because your prosthesis has no possibility of slipping, clogging, or coming out. It is clear that chewing is better when compared to classical prostheses. A patient who uses a classic upper full denture will experience complete reduction of the upper palate as the upper palate is fully closed. You will not experience such a problem in the implanted prosthesis.
WHO ARE AVAILABLE FOR IMPLANT?
If you have a missing tooth or teeth, if your general health is good, if you have healthy gums and a bone in your jaw to support the implants, then it means your implant candidate. Even if bone loss is present in your jaw bone, you may be able to become an implant candidate. However, the bone must be reconstructed with some special procedures. Your implanted teeth and surrounding tissues should be treated very well. In order to do this, it is sufficient to carry out regular dentist checks as well as brushing teeth and using floss.
Young patients who have not completed bone development, pregnant women, people who use large amounts of cigarettes (cigarette use may suppress the healing of the mouth and cause a decrease in implant success), alcohol or drug addicts, high dose radiotherapy to the head and neck region it is not. People with chronic diseases or systemic problems such as high blood pressure, diabetes, connective tissue diseases, hemophilia and significant immune deficiencies are not a good candidate for the implant. However, depending on the degree and severity of their condition, implant placement may be possible. An implant is not recommended, as people with corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs, and those with a high degree of dental tightening and grind- ing are likely to have a high risk of success (for overloading the implant).
Your dentist will assess your condition and decide if you are a good implant candidate.
Your dentist will examine your mouth and teeth and learn about your medical and dental health. A panoramic x-ray is taken and your dentist decides whether implant / implants can be made. Then, you will inform you in terms of the procedure, wages and complications that may occur and prepare a special treatment plan by taking your wishes and needs into consideration.
BEFORE PLACING THE IMPLANT
Implants can be applied to replace the teeth that had been lost a few years ago, or the teeth that were recently pulled out due to severe decay, gum disease, infection, or injury. In some cases, the implant can be placed in place when the tooth is pulled. However, if there is a serious infection in the tooth root and gums, it should be waited for a few months for recovery after tooth extraction.
To increase the chance of success, the amount of bone in the area where the implant will be applied should be increased before implant placement. This is called bone grafting or augmentation. In addition, bone grafting can be performed at the time of implant placement. However, your dentist can perform bone grafting to allow bone healing before implant placement. For healing, it should be waited 4-12 weeks before the implant is performed. Temporary dentures or bridges can be used.
You should take antibiotics and painkillers before surgery. Local anesthesia is applied during the procedure.
First, an incision is made in the gingiva to expose the bone. If there are any irritated tissues or teeth are removed, these sections are cleaned and disinfected with a special technique, and the self-renewal capacity of the tissue is increased. Then the bone is prepared for the implant. After implant placement, the gums are closed and the sutures removed. After the procedure, x-ray or preferably 3-dimensional imaging is taken to check whether the implants are where they should be. The number of implants to be implanted and whether the bone graft is deployed varies the time required for the procedure. Most of the time, 30-40 minutes is enough for an experienced physician to place the implant.
If implants are placed in the front region, the image is preserved using temporary prostheses or bridges. For temporary prosthesis, options should be considered before surgery.
After surgery, antibiotics and painkillers should be used. You should not spit, suck, and smoke. These movements cause the healing of the blood clot to slow down. Only soft food should be eaten to prevent injury to the gingival tissues. The implanted area should not be cleaned for one or two weeks. However, the teeth in the other parts of the mouth by brushing, for the surgical field by your dentist to use antibacterial mouthwashes should be kept as clean as possible.
Stitches should be removed after 7-10 days after the surgical procedure.
Once the implant is placed in the jaw bone, it is necessary to wait a few months for the implant to integrate into the bone. This period is usually 5 weeks for the lower jaw, while the upper jaw is 10 weeks.
Usually the upper part of the implant is located under the gum. After waiting for a few months, the implant is exposed with Er: YAG laser without the need for a second surgical procedure and the gingival shaper heads are attached, which will give the gingiva a natural form.
Sometimes (especially in implant applications when the teeth are pulled) healing heads of the implants are implanted in the session where the implant is applied. This is called a one-stage implant application technique.
For implants, there is rarely a risk of not being successfully integrated into the bone. In this case, the implants are removed, replaced with larger ones, or the area is expected to heal for a few months without implants.
Prosthetic procedures can be started 2-3 days after gingival shaper placement.
Each surgical intervention carries the risk of complications. These complications include bleeding, infection and injuries to the nerves, sinuses, and nasal cavity.
The chance of success in implant surgery is more than 90%. Trauma to the bone and gingiva, such as trauma, infection around the implant, smoking, etc., may reduce the integration of the implant into the bone environment, which may affect the success of the implant. At the same time, insufficiency of healthy bone may cause the implant not to be integrated. In cases where there is not enough bone, the implants cannot be immobilized and the bone cannot be integrated.
WHAT IS IMPLANT ASSISTED PROSTHESIS?
Implant-supported prostheses are prostheses placed on the implant and supported by implants.
Implant-supported prostheses can be used in people with no bone but with adequate bone levels. When implanted on implant-supported prosthesis implants, the classical prostheses are placed on the gums and are therefore more limited in the mouth.
Implant-supported prostheses have special attachments that can be placed on implants. Implant-supported prostheses are easy to insert and remove. However, it is also possible to make fixed prosthesis such as crowns and bridges. Your dentist will recommend the type of prosthesis that best suits you.